Physicists and engineers have been studying
mirror matter, which is
also called antimatter in the scientific community.
Mirror matter is a mirror image of ?ordinary matter;? and can be a solid, liquid, gas or
plasma. Like ordinary matter, mirror matter is composed antimatter
elements that have been incorporated into the
Periodic Table of Matter & Antimatter Elements. Each antimatter element?s physical, chemical, and nuclear
characteristics have been defined to such an extent that people know all
most as much about mirror matter as ordinary matter.
Arthur Schuster, a British physicist, coined the names "antimatter" and
"anti-atoms." He believed there were entire stellar systems of antimatter
that were indistinguishable from our solar system. He believed matter and
antimatter would annihilate each other to produce an enormous quantity of
energy and anticipated the concepts of special relativity and quantum
In 1905, Albert Einstein unveiled his
special relativity theory to explain
the relationship between space & time, and energy & mass by famous equation: E=mc2. Hermann
Minkowski observed that space and time were coupled together by a
forth-dimensional. In 1919,
Theodor Kaluza unified Maxwell's Electromagnetism and Einstein's Theory
of General Relativity and Gravity by adding the fifth dimension.
In the 1920?s, Max
Planck proposed light was composed of little packets called "quantum? to
explain how light was not just a wave or just a particle, but a combination
of both. Erwin Schr?dinger and Werner Heisenberg apply the concept to the
atoms and developed
quantum theory of physics for slow moving particles.
Paul Dirac combined quantum theory and special relativity. The solution
contained an electron with positive energy, and a positive electron
(positron or hole) with negative energy. Carl Anderson discovered the
positron in cosmic showers. Dirac and Anderson both received the Nobel
Prizes. Paul Dirac theorized for every particle there exists a corresponding
antiparticle, which exactly matches the particle but with opposite charge.
Dirac also speculated on the existence of anti-planets, and anti-stars.
Tsung Dao Lee and
Chen Ning Yang,
Chinese physicists, proposed antimatter or ?mirror matter?
was need to solve the
interacted in the same way as ordinary particles, except that ordinary
particles have left-handed interactions, mirror particles have
right-handed interactions. In 1955 and 1956,
anti-neutrons were discovered.
In 1962, Lee
and Yang received the Nobel Prize in Physics. The
conclusion was that there was symmetry
between ?ordinary matter? and ?mirror matter? in the
Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, and Fred Hoyle had proposed the Steady State
Universe Model, which assumed the universe was composed of equal qualities
of matter and antimatter. The alternative theory was the expanding universe
model that assumed the universe contained only matter. The discovery of
microwave background radiation in 1965 split community into two
concepts: scientific Plasma Universe Model and religious Big Bang
Georges LeMaitre, a Catholic Priest, conceived the Big Bang Model. In
1929, Edwin Hubble used the
Mt. Wilson Observatory and discovered
galaxies were moving away at high speeds, which supported LeMaitre?s
theory for a big explosion. After the discovery of antimatter, the religious
Big Bang Model was modified to assume most of the antimatter
annihilated in a Big Bang that took place billions of years ago.
Hannes Alfven, Father of Modern Plasma Science, developed the
Plasma Universe Model that assumes equal quantities of matter and antimatter
in the universe. Alfven received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to basic
plasma physics and space plasmas.
Anthony Peratt developed computer models that simulated the known
galaxies in the universe. In our galaxy, the sun is one of the billions of
stars that are composed of matter and there are a similar number of
the last fifty years, high-energy physicists have built accelerators to discover new
elementary particles. In 1967, Steven Weinberg theorized that weak forces
and electromagnetic were the same at high energy levels, which was confirmed
by physicists at
Fermilab in 1973. Steven Weinberg, Sheldon Glashow, and Abdus Salam,
were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1979.
In 1982 and 1984, UA1
and UA2 collaborations at
CERN discovered W and Z bosons. Carlo Rubbia and Simon Van der Meer
received a Nobel Prize for their contributions for making, storing and
colliding antimatter and discovering the W and Z bosons. Today, the
Standard Model unifies the weak and electromagnetic theories into
confirmed matter-antimatter symmetry between elementary particles.
Physicists have identified the elementary building blocks (six quarks,
six leptons, six anti-quarks and six anti-leptons) along with their force
carriers. Physicists at
Fermilab are looking for the Higgs bosons that give particles
mass; and physicists at
CERN will be using the
Large Hadrons Collider to look for the Higgs boson at high
Robert L. Forward, American
physicist, used ?mirror matter? rather than antimatter to emphasize
that antimatter was a mirror image of ?ordinary matter.? In his book,
Mirror Matter: Pioneering Antimatter Physics, he describes how to make,
capture, store, and use antimatter.
Forward consulted for years
NASA and U.S. Air Force on how mirror matter or
antimatter could be used
for space propulsion.
comets were discovered to be
natural source of antimatter or ?mirror matter.? The announcement was
made at the April 2002 joint meeting of the
American Physical Society and
American Astronomical Society. This
is the greatest discovery since mankind discovered fire. Since
comets are measured in the hundreds of billions of metric tons, one of
the hundreds of comets in our solar system could supply the entire World?s
energy needs for billions of years.
was substituted for ?Antimatter Energy? to improve communications with
students and the public. Mirror Energy is an efficiently and
economically as a source of green energy. The economic opportunities for humanity
are unlimited if government, business and educational leaders can work
collegiately together again as they did for implementing the Internet. For
example, the United States can achieve Energy Independence within fifteen