Robert L. Forward, American
physicist, in his book, Mirror Matter: Pioneering
Antimatter Physics described how accelerators could be used for making,
capturing, storing, and using mirror matter or antimatter. He
consulted for years with NASA and the U.S. Air Force on using mirror matter
for space propulsion. Looking back over the last twenty-five years, we have
the opportunity to evaluate some of his perceptions of the future.
He believed that grams
of mirror matter could be produced for about $10 million per milligram.
Based upon recent articles, approximately 100 milligrams of mirror matter
are being made by particle accelerators each year at about $100 million per
milligram. The cost of making mirror matter is about $10 billion per
year. The United States has developed advanced aircraft and spacecraft that
use mirror matter for propulsion.
He discussed spacecraft
traveling to the colonies on the Moon. The spacecraft could take off from airports, travel trips into space, and
land at airports anywhere in the World. By using five milligrams
of mirror matter,
a five metric ton spacecraft could initially travel to the
Moon for about $100 million or $20 million per person. This compares to
NASA’s plans to spend $10 billion per trip for traveling to the Moon or $2
billion per astronauts.
spacecraft traveling Mars in days to visit people living in communities on
the planet. Today, manned spaceflights to Mars are possible by relocating
NASA existing budget. The important questions are: Is Mars’ environmental
conducive for people to live on the planet? When was Mars’ atmosphere blown
off the planet? If the explosion was recent event, did people live on the
He discussed Russian
facilities on the Moon that were making and processing ten kilograms of
per year. Today, the technical understanding of mirror
matter exists for the
United States to achieve Energy Independence with 200
kilograms of mirror matter, which can replace one billion tons of coal, 4
billion barrels of oil (11 million barrels per day), and 6 trillion cubic
feet of natural gas. Carbon dioxide levels could be reduced by 3.8 billion
tons or 50 percent.
is produced by bringing together “ordinary matter” and “mirror matter,”
which produces energy according to Einstein’s equation E = mc2.