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Primordial Antimatter Plasmas in Our Solar System

The 33rd IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science
Traverse City, Michigan - June 4 through June 8, 2006.
http://www.icops2006.org/
 

Hannes Alfven, Father of Modern Plasma Science,1,2 developed the scientific model called the Plasma Universe, which contained both matter and antimatter. He believed most of the Universe was composed of plasmas; and a Liendenfrost Layer or ambi-plasma existed between matter and antimatter. Antimatter is a mirror image of matter and like matter, is composed of elements that have been incorporated into an updated Periodic Table Elements. Each antimatter element’s nuclear, physical, and chemical properties have been defined to such an extent that people know almost as much about antimatter as matter. Antimatter can be a solid, liquid, gas or plasma.  When matter and antimatter come together, they are converted into Mirror Energy according to Einstein's equation E = mc2

Antimatter History 3
In 1898, Arthur Schuster, a British physicist, introduced the name "antimatter" and theorized entire stellar systems of antimatter that were indistinguishable from our solar system. He believed that matter and antimatter conversion would create an enormous quantity of energy along with anticipating the concepts of special relativity and quantum physics.

      In 1905, Albert Einstein unveiled his theory of special relativity to explain the relationship between space & time, and energy & mass in his famous equation, E=mc2. Max Planck proposed light was composed of little packets called "quantum” to explain how light was not just a wave or a particle, but a combination of both. Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg apply the concept to atoms and developed the quantum theory of physics.

·     Paul Dirac combined special relativity and quantum theory and postulated an electron with positive energy, and a positive electron (positron) with negative energy. In 1930, Carl Anderson confirmed the discovered of the positron. Dirac shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Schrödinger. Next, Dirac theorized that for every particle, there was a corresponding antiparticle. After the discovery of the anti-proton and anti-neutron in the 1950’s, Dirac believed that there were anti-solar systems composed of anti-stars and anti-planets.

·     Hannes Alfven theorized how the dynamics of ambi-plasmas that pervaded entire galaxies and carried the electrical currents that created the galactic magnetic fields.  Alfven described the magnetosphere, a protective plasma shield surrounding the Earth, the formation of comet tails. Anthony Peratt4 confirmed his theory by creating computer models that have simulated every known galaxy in the universe.  Alfven received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970 for his contributions to basic plasma physics and space plasmas.

After thousands of year of observing comets, they discovered to be natural source of antimatter5.  The announcement was made at the April 2002 joint meeting of American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society.  On July 4, 2005, NASA slammed the Deep Impact spacecraft into the 9P/Tempel 1 comet and confirmed that comets are composed of antimatter.6 Using the dusty icy model, NASA had estimated the crater would be about 10 meters in diameter; but the explosion was over 3,200 kilometers6 in diameter or about the size of the United States. NASA was using the wrong model.

Antimatter Comet Model 7
The quantity of antimatter in our solar system is estimated to be one part per billion, which is about the mass of Earth. After searching the solar system, the antimatter was theorized to be at the edge of our solar system in an Oort Cloud. When antimatter is observed orbiting the Sun, it is called a comet. The mass of the comets is estimated to be about a million times less than one part per billion. People have been observing comets for thousands of years from the conversion of matter and antimatter into a spectrum of radiation including gamma rays,
x-rays and light that comes from the comet’s nucleus, coma and tails.

·     From Halley’s comet, the nucleus was blacker than coal. The nucleus ranges from several meters to ten of kilometers in diameter. Sungrazer comets are from 3 meters to 60 meters; small comets are less than 100 meters, average comets are 1 kilometer; and large comets are about ten kilometers. The mass ranges from ten to over a trillion metric tons. The solar dust particles are blasting antimatter dust particles off the nucleus into the comet’s coma.

·     The coma is an ambi-plasma of ionized matter and antimatter particles. The comet’s coma is similar to Earth’s magnetosphere except it is larger.  When matter and antimatter come together, the energy produces a spectrum of radiation including, gamma rays, x-rays, and light.  As a comet gets closer to the sun, the quantity of solar dust particles interacting with the nucleus and coma increases significantly. This caused the coma to get larger.  Comas can be over a million kilometers in diameter or about the size of the Sun. 

·     The solar wind pulls the coma off the comet to form comet’s tails that bend in the direction of the solar wind. Comets can have three tails: hydrogen, ion, and dusty tails. Hydrogen tails are composed of protons and antiprotons. The ion tails are composed of atomic and molecular ions. Dust tails are composed of electrically charged matter and antimatter dust particles. The comet’s tails can be over 200 million kilometer long or the distance from the Earth to Sun.

In summary, comets are composed of primordial antimatter. Solar dust particles blast antimatter off the comet to form an ambi-plasma of electrically charged matter and antimatter ions and dust particles. When matter and antimatter come together, the energy produces a spectrum of energy that includes gamma rays, x-rays, and light. The solar wind pulls the ambi-plasma off the coma into the comet’s tails.  The energy produced from the matter and antimatter conversions can be millions of times more than the sunlight reflecting off the comet's nucleus. 

9P/Tempel 1 Comet
The antimatter model can explains what took place when NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft collided into the 9P/Tempel 1 comet. Using the dusty ice model, NASA estimated the kinetic energy from the 372-kilogram spacecraft slamming into the comet would be 19 Giga-joules (4.5 tons of TNT); and the explosion would created a crater about 10 meters in diameter. In the antimatter model, provide to NASA and University of Maryland Program Manager, the explosion would produce a 67,000 Peta-joules (16,000-Megaton of TNT). NASA evaluated the alternatives; and on January 12, 2005, NASA launched the Deep Impact spacecraft and began monitoring its progress.

·     The comet’s nucleus was a potato-shaped object that was about 3 kilometers in diameter and over 7.6 kilometers long. The mass of the comet was about 140 billion metric tons. In the dusty ice model, the comet’s density was 620 kilograms per cubic meter, which is less than the density of water. NASA estimated the comet’s mass was 72 billion metric tons.

·     On June 30, 2005, the comet’s coma surrounding the nucleus was over 60,000 kilometers in diameter. Based upon 50 metric tons of solar dust particles falling on Earth every day, about 1,000 tons of solar dust particles pass through the coma every day or two million metric tons for every orbit around the Sun, which agreed with NASA’s estimate of one million metric tons.

·     On July 4, 2005, NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft slammed into 9P/Tempel 1 comet8 at 10 kilometers per second. The initial blasted thousands of tons of antimatter off the nucleus into comet’s coma and the spacecraft into millions of pieces. The pieces of the spacecraft and tons of solar dust particles along with tons of antimatter dust particles blasted off the comet produced a spectacular explosion that was 3,200-kilometer5 in diameter or about the size of the United States. The nineteen-hour explosion was equivalent to about 20 million peta-joules (5 million Megatons of TNT), which could have supplied entire World’s energy needs for a hundred years.   

The millions of tons of matter, observed in the comet's coma and tails, come from solar dust particles flowing through the coma’s primordial or ambi-plasma rather than the comet’s nucleus. The energy from the explosions was a trillion times energy more the 19 Giga-joules that scientist had estimated. The explosions converted matter and antimatter into a spectrum of radiation including gamma rays, x-rays and light that were photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope9

NASA’s and their contractor’s position is state that the Deep Impact spacecraft’s collision with the 9P/Tempel 1 comet didn’t create a nuclear explosion; however, they don’t have any explanation other than the antimatter model and are concerned that they have violated The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty11. However, I believe that United States didn’t violate treaty because nuclear energy comes from “fission” or “fusion” of matter, and Mirror Energy comes from "conversion” of matter and antimatter into energy. 

Sungrazer Comets
The antimatter model can be used to explain sungrazer comet’s collision with the Sun. Sungrazers come from the breakup of larger comets. In the 19th century, Heinrich Kreutz12, German astronomer, determined a large number of the sungrazers came from a larger comet, which broke up about 12,000 years ago. The sungrazers are classified into families. The Kreutz family is the largest with over 500 sungrazers. The other families are Meyer, Marsden, and Kracht.   

The sungrazers range in size from 3 to 63 meter in diameter. Shortly before sungrazers collide with the Sun, they create comas and tails. Sometimes the sungrazers break up into antimatter meteors before colliding into the sun. When sungrazers comets collided with the Sun, they produce large sunspots the size of Earth and gigantic solar storms. NASA’s SOHO website13 shows the explosions caused by sungrazers colliding with the Sun. These explosions are measured in billions of Megatons of TNT, which makes the 5 million-megatons of TNT explosion by NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft look small in comparison.

These gigantic explosions produce enormous storms that travel hundreds of millions of kilometers into space. On July 23, 2002, the explosion from the 23,000 metric ton sungrazer was equivalent to a one billion Megatons of TNT14 that could have supplied the World's total energy needs for 10,000 years. Kilograms of residual antimatter have been observed in the solar explosions14. When Earth passes through these enormous storms, communication satellites have been damaged and electrical power has been disrupted on Earth.

Today, we know that antimatter comets are not only colliding with the Sun but also are colliding with stars throughout the Universe and are the source of gamma-ray bursts that scientists have been studying for forty years.

Summary
Scientists and engineers are making quantum leaps in science and technology to help billions of people improve their quality of life. The discovery that comets are natural sources of antimatter is perhaps the greatest discovery since mankind learned how to use fire. Matter and antimatter converts into Mirror Energy according to Einstein's famous equation or
E = mc2
: The most efficient energy source in the universe. 

Mirror Energy is going to replace coal, oil and natural gas as the World’s Primary Source of Energy15. Matter and antimatter can be converted directly into electricity. Off-peak power could be used to make hydrogen for motor vehicles and oxygen for commercial applications.  United States could achieve Energy Independence by using 200 kilograms of antimatter that could replace one billion tons of coal, 4 billion barrels of oil (11 million barrels per day), and 6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Carbon dioxide and methane levels can be reduced by over 3.8 billion tons or 53 percent.  

With United States' leadership, every country can be brought into the twenty-first century without destroying Earth’s environment. Millions of businesses could create billion of jobs. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty, providing them a World-Class Education, and empowering them to live out their dreams.  

References:

  1. Alfven, Hannes, Worlds-Antiworlds: Antimatter in Cosmology, W H Freeman & Co,  1966
  2.
Alfven, Hannes, Cosmic Plasma, Springer, 1981  
  3. Antimatter History,
www.antimatterenergy.com/antimatter_history.htm

  4. Peratt, Anthony, Physics of the Plasma Universe, 1992
  5.
Comets composed of Antimatter, www.matter-antimatter.com
  6.
9P/Tempel 1 Comet, www.energyusa.net/tempel_1_comet.htm. 
  7. Model of Comets,
www.matter-antimatter.com/comets.htm
  8. NASA Deep Impact Home Page,
http://deepimpact.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.html
  9.
Hubble Captures Deep Impact's Collision with Comet,
     
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2005/17/ 
10. Deep Impact: Excavating Comet Tempel 1,
www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1118923/DC1

11. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,
www.state.gov/t/ac/trt/4797.htm
12. Sun Approaching Comets, www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~jds/kreutz.htm

13. NASA SOHO website,
http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov
14. Solar Flares Shuffle Antimatter Around, 
www.universetoday.com/am/publish/printer_solar_flares_antimatter.html
15. Energy USA website, www.EnergyUSA.net
 

 

 

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