Plasmas in Our Solar System
The 33rd IEEE
International Conference on Plasma Science
Traverse City, Michigan - June 4 through June 8, 2006.
Alfven, Father of Modern Plasma Science,1,2
developed the scientific model called the Plasma Universe, which contained
both matter and antimatter. He believed most of the Universe was composed of
plasmas; and a Liendenfrost Layer or ambi-plasma existed between matter and
is a mirror image of matter and like
matter, is composed of elements that have been incorporated into an updated
Periodic Table Elements. Each antimatter element’s nuclear, physical, and
chemical properties have been defined to such an extent that people know
almost as much about antimatter as matter. Antimatter can be a solid,
liquid, gas or plasma. When matter and antimatter come together,
they are converted into Mirror Energy according to Einstein's
equation E =
Arthur Schuster, a British physicist, introduced the name "antimatter" and
theorized entire stellar systems of antimatter that were indistinguishable
from our solar system. He believed that matter and antimatter conversion
would create an enormous quantity of energy along with anticipating the
concepts of special relativity and quantum physics.
1905, Albert Einstein unveiled his theory of special relativity to explain
the relationship between space & time, and energy & mass in his famous
Max Planck proposed light was composed of little packets called "quantum” to
explain how light was not just a wave or a particle, but a combination of
both. Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg apply the concept to atoms and
developed the quantum theory of physics.
Dirac combined special relativity and quantum theory and postulated an
electron with positive energy, and a positive electron (positron) with
negative energy. In 1930, Carl Anderson confirmed the discovered of the
positron. Dirac shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Schrödinger. Next,
Dirac theorized that for every particle, there was a corresponding
antiparticle. After the discovery of the anti-proton and anti-neutron in the
1950’s, Dirac believed that there were anti-solar systems composed of
anti-stars and anti-planets.
Alfven theorized how the dynamics of ambi-plasmas that pervaded entire
galaxies and carried the electrical currents that created the galactic
magnetic fields. Alfven described the magnetosphere, a protective plasma
shield surrounding the Earth, the formation of comet tails. Anthony Peratt4
confirmed his theory by creating computer models that have simulated every
known galaxy in the universe. Alfven received the Nobel Prize in Physics in
1970 for his contributions to basic plasma physics and space plasmas.
thousands of year of observing comets, they discovered to be natural source
The announcement was made at the April 2002 joint meeting of American
Physical Society and American Astronomical Society. On July 4, 2005, NASA
slammed the Deep Impact spacecraft into the 9P/Tempel 1 comet and confirmed
that comets are composed of antimatter.6
Using the dusty icy model, NASA had estimated the crater would be about 10
meters in diameter; but the explosion was over 3,200 kilometers6
in diameter or about the size of the United States. NASA was using the wrong
Antimatter Comet Model
The quantity of antimatter in our
solar system is estimated to be one part per billion, which is about the
mass of Earth. After searching the solar system, the antimatter was
theorized to be at the edge of our solar system in an Oort Cloud.
antimatter is observed orbiting the Sun, it is called a comet. The mass of
the comets is estimated to be about a million times less than one part per
billion. People have been observing comets for thousands of years from the
conversion of matter and antimatter
into a spectrum of radiation including gamma rays,
x-rays and light that comes from the comet’s nucleus, coma and tails.
Halley’s comet, the nucleus was
blacker than coal. The nucleus ranges from
to ten of kilometers in diameter. Sungrazer comets are from 3 meters to 60
meters; small comets are less than 100 meters, average comets are 1
kilometer; and large comets are about ten kilometers. The mass ranges from
ten to over a trillion metric tons. The solar dust particles are blasting
antimatter dust particles off the nucleus into the comet’s coma.
coma is an ambi-plasma of ionized matter and antimatter particles. The
comet’s coma is similar to Earth’s magnetosphere except it is larger. When
matter and antimatter come together, the energy
produces a spectrum of
radiation including, gamma rays, x-rays, and light.
As a comet gets closer to the
sun, the quantity of solar dust particles interacting with the nucleus and
coma increases significantly. This caused the coma to get larger. Comas can
be over a million kilometers in diameter or about the size of the Sun.
solar wind pulls the coma off the comet to form comet’s tails that bend in
the direction of the solar wind. Comets can have three tails: hydrogen, ion,
and dusty tails. Hydrogen tails are composed of protons and antiprotons. The
ion tails are composed of atomic and molecular ions. Dust tails are composed
of electrically charged matter and antimatter dust particles. The comet’s
tails can be over 200 million kilometer long or the distance from the Earth
summary, comets are composed of primordial antimatter. Solar dust particles
blast antimatter off the comet to form an ambi-plasma
of electrically charged matter and antimatter ions and dust particles. When
matter and antimatter come together, the energy produces a spectrum of
energy that includes gamma rays, x-rays, and light. The solar wind pulls the
ambi-plasma off the coma into the comet’s tails. The energy produced from
the matter and antimatter conversions can be millions of times more than the
sunlight reflecting off the comet's nucleus.
9P/Tempel 1 Comet
antimatter model can explains what took place when NASA’s Deep Impact
spacecraft collided into the 9P/Tempel 1 comet. Using the dusty ice model,
NASA estimated the kinetic energy
from the 372-kilogram
spacecraft slamming into the
comet would be 19 Giga-joules (4.5 tons of TNT); and the explosion would
created a crater about 10 meters in diameter. In the antimatter model,
provide to NASA and University of Maryland Program Manager, the explosion
would produce a 67,000 Peta-joules (16,000-Megaton of TNT). NASA evaluated
the alternatives; and on January 12, 2005, NASA launched the Deep Impact
spacecraft and began monitoring its progress.
comet’s nucleus was a potato-shaped object that was about 3 kilometers in
diameter and over 7.6 kilometers long. The mass of the comet was about 140
billion metric tons. In the dusty ice model, the comet’s density was 620
kilograms per cubic meter, which is less than the density of water. NASA
estimated the comet’s mass was 72 billion metric tons.
June 30, 2005, the comet’s coma surrounding the nucleus was over 60,000
kilometers in diameter. Based upon 50 metric tons of solar dust particles
falling on Earth every day, about 1,000 tons of solar dust particles pass
through the coma every day or two million metric tons for every orbit around
the Sun, which agreed with NASA’s estimate of one million metric tons.
July 4, 2005, NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft slammed into 9P/Tempel 1 comet8
at 10 kilometers per second. The initial blasted thousands of tons of
antimatter off the nucleus into comet’s coma and the spacecraft into
millions of pieces. The pieces of the spacecraft and tons of solar dust
particles along with tons of antimatter dust particles blasted off the comet
produced a spectacular explosion that was 3,200-kilometer5
in diameter or about the size of the United States. The nineteen-hour
explosion was equivalent to about 20 million peta-joules (5 million Megatons
of TNT), which could have supplied entire World’s energy needs for a hundred
millions of tons of matter, observed in the comet's coma and tails, come
from solar dust particles flowing through the coma’s primordial or
ambi-plasma rather than the comet’s nucleus.
The energy from the explosions was a
trillion times energy more the 19 Giga-joules that scientist had estimated.
The explosions converted matter and antimatter into a spectrum of radiation
including gamma rays, x-rays and light that were photographed by the Hubble
and their contractor’s position is state that the Deep Impact spacecraft’s
collision with the 9P/Tempel 1 comet didn’t create a nuclear explosion;
however, they don’t have any explanation other than the antimatter model and
are concerned that they have violated The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty11.
However, I believe that United States didn’t violate treaty because nuclear
energy comes from “fission” or “fusion” of matter, and Mirror Energy comes
from "conversion” of matter and antimatter into energy.
antimatter model can be used to explain sungrazer comet’s collision with the
Sun. Sungrazers come from the breakup of larger comets. In the 19th
century, Heinrich Kreutz12, German astronomer, determined a large
number of the sungrazers came from a larger comet, which broke up about
12,000 years ago. The sungrazers are classified into families. The Kreutz
family is the largest with over 500 sungrazers. The other families are
Meyer, Marsden, and Kracht.
sungrazers range in size from 3 to 63 meter in diameter. Shortly before
sungrazers collide with the Sun, they create comas and tails. Sometimes the
sungrazers break up into antimatter meteors before colliding into the sun.
When sungrazers comets collided with the Sun, they produce large sunspots
the size of Earth and gigantic solar storms. NASA’s SOHO website13
shows the explosions caused by sungrazers colliding with the Sun. These
explosions are measured in billions of Megatons of TNT, which makes the 5
million-megatons of TNT explosion by NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft look
small in comparison.
gigantic explosions produce enormous storms that travel hundreds of millions
of kilometers into space. On July 23, 2002, the explosion from the 23,000
metric ton sungrazer was equivalent to a one billion Megatons of TNT14
that could have supplied the World's total energy needs for 10,000
years. Kilograms of residual antimatter have been observed in the solar
explosions14. When Earth passes through these enormous
storms, communication satellites have been damaged and electrical power has
been disrupted on Earth.
we know that antimatter comets are not only colliding with the Sun but also
are colliding with stars throughout the Universe and are the source of
gamma-ray bursts that scientists have been studying for forty years.
Scientists and engineers are making quantum leaps in science and technology
to help billions of people improve their quality of life. The discovery that
comets are natural sources of antimatter is perhaps the greatest discovery
since mankind learned how to use fire. Matter and antimatter converts into
Mirror Energy according to Einstein's famous equation or
E = mc2:
The most efficient energy source in the universe.
is going to replace coal, oil and natural gas as the World’s Primary Source
of Energy15. Matter and antimatter can be converted directly into
electricity. Off-peak power could be used to make hydrogen for motor
vehicles and oxygen for commercial applications. United States could
achieve Energy Independence by using 200 kilograms of antimatter that could
replace one billion tons of coal, 4 billion barrels of oil (11 million
barrels per day), and 6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Carbon dioxide
and methane levels can be reduced by over 3.8 billion tons or 53 percent.
United States' leadership, every country can be brought into the
twenty-first century without destroying Earth’s environment. Millions of
businesses could create billion of jobs. However, the real benefits will
come from taking billions of people out of poverty, providing them a
World-Class Education, and empowering them to live out their dreams.
Worlds-Antiworlds: Antimatter in
W H Freeman & Co,
3. Antimatter History,
4. Peratt, Anthony, Physics of the Plasma Universe, 1992
composed of Antimatter,
7. Model of Comets,
8. NASA Deep Impact Home Page,
10. Deep Impact: Excavating Comet Tempel 1,
11. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,
12. Sun Approaching Comets,
13. NASA SOHO website,
14. Solar Flares Shuffle Antimatter Around,
15. Energy USA website,